Special Documentary about the cross with the latter 'to' by Dr. Meskerem Lechissa


Special Documentary about the cross with the latter 'to' by Dr. Meskerem Lechissa. These Coptic funerary reliefs (5th-6th century AD) illustrate the transition in Egypt from traditional Egypto-Roman religion to Christianity. As such, they display transitional forms and symbols belonging to both religious systems. 


The overall interpretation of the reliefs is "Eternal life in Christ." The reliefs (upper two photos) each show a pair of ankhs flanking a central Greek cross. But the ankhs are crosses, and the central cross is a Chi-Rho! (The "standard" forms of the Chi-Rho and ankh are shown in the two lower right photos for comparison.)


The "ankh cross" appropriated the Egyptian ankh (hieroglyph and symbol of life) into a form of the Christian cross. Its symbolism combines the idea of eternal life with the idea of Christ's redemption.


The Ankh cross is also called crux ansata, eyed cross, or handled cross, and is technically described as an "Egyptian" (tau, or T-shaped) cross with an upper loop.


The Chi-Rho, between the paired ankh crosses, is a form of Christ's monogram where the Chi or X-shaped St. Andrew's cross has been replaced by a large Greek cross. The only remainder of the Rho is a small P-shaped "handle" at the top of the cross. 


The result is a Chi-Rho with a strong visual resemblance and symbolic connection both to the Greek cross and to the Ankh cross. The arrangement of three crosses recalls the crucifixion scene in Golgotha, where Christ was crucified between two thieves.


The circular heads of the ankh crosses display the hieroglyph for Re/Helios, the sun disk (Sol Invictus). This form of the ankh first appears in Amarna art, where the sun disk is the Aten. But here, the pagan sun-god has been appropriated into a Christian symbol, as tau-cross plus Re. 


This might be read as "Christ, the light of the world" (Lux Mundi). In identifying Re/Helios with Christ, one passes symbolically from pagan (Life in Re) to Christian (Life in Christ) faith and belief.

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